Lecture 7: ArrayList, LinkedList, Stacks

September 28, 2016

data structures |


  • Cycling back to the ArrayListIterator to understand how nested classes function.
  • Also going through implementation of LinkedList.
  • Stacks and Queues.

To Dos

  • Read Chapters 3 and 4.
  • And for me, go back to Big Java and at least skim those chapters as well.

Array Lists

Going back to MyArrayList code.

iterator(): create a new instance of a class that implements Iterator

ArrayListIterator is a nested class; it’s defined inside the MyArrayList class. It’s defined as private so that no one outside MyArrayList can instantiate it, but MyArrayList can.

Purpose of an iterator is to step through a collection of any sort.

  • hasNext(): figure out if there’s a next element
  • next(): move to next and return it
  • remove(): remove the element that we just moved past

Our iterator is not static. There are two kinds of nested.

  • Non-static is tied to the particular instance of MyArrayList from whence its generator.

The one thing we need to keep track of w/ an iterator is “Where are we?”.

Private vars:

  • current: where we currently are; instantiated to zero.
  • okToRemove: whether we can implement the remove method. At the beginning it’s not okay (since we’d remove n-1) so this is set to false

size() can be accessed on MyArrayList since ArrayListIterator is nested. Would it work if the nested class was static? I’m guessing no since it wouldn’t be tied to a specific instance but I should test it!

curent++ will evaluate the value of current first and then increment it.


There’s a method in the MyArrayList to actually remove an element which is what we actually want to call.

MyArrayList.this means the specific containing object. --current means we remove the item before the current one.

Any Collection, which includes any List, would provide an Iterator.

An Inner Class is non-static nested class.

Linked Lists

MyLinkedList implementation (that will be sent out?) does a doubly linked list with sentinal nodes.

Don’t worry about modCount.

There’s a class LinkedList and you can just instantiate to create.

Has two private Node objects: begin and end.

Node class is static and defined in MyLinkedList. Node doesn’t have access to MyLinkedList objects (since it’s static). next and prev pointers to other Nodes.

doClear() creates end nodes and makes them point at each other. Look at the code.

Also called when beginMarker and endMarker already exist by the clear method.

Java garbage collection! Imagine if there’s a count in memory of how many references there are to an object. The Java Virtual Machine reclaims the memory of the objects that no one points to. In other languages like C this will give you a memory leak and you need to do it yourself.

So that’s what happens when clear() is called.

size() isEmpty()

add() Lots of them! Overloaded. If no other info, add at the end of the list. Another implementation takes index we want to insert something and the object itself.

In a linked list, you don’t just jump to a location, you have to iterate from beginning to end. So what we actually want, given an index, is the reference to the Node that exists that many steps into the linked list.

  • addBefore()
  • getNode()
    • Interesting!
    • Depending on what index is, we start from beginning or end. Doesn’t change Big Oh
    • Start at first element if start at beginning
    • Start at endMarker if we start at the end though since we’re inserting before.

Also have a set method that also uses getNode().

Remove methods.

  • Remove Node p. Basically just bypass it by changing the references of the nodes before and after. All you need is the reference to the node you want to remove and you can use its next and prev references!

Lastly has an iterator() method that returns an instance of the LinkedListIterator class that’s very similar to our ArrayList iterator. Look at this code and understand it.


So what can we do with these things??

There are other data structures built on top of these.

The Stack.

  • You can only add/remove elements from the top of a Stack
  • Last in, first out. aka LIFO

ADT, Abstract Data Type of a Stack. What methods does it need to have to behave like this?

Adding an element is referred to as pushing. Removing an element (and returning it) is referred to popping.

top or peek gives you the last value without removing?

isEmpty() size()

Lots of problems using just push and pop.

  • Reversing the order
  • Detecting palindromes: a word that’s the same backwards and forwards
    • If you have an even number, the first half is the second half reversed
    • If odd, ignore middle character,
    • pop off the second half and compare to each of the first

This is related to the Homework. Something similar. Need to implement a Stack. Any List will work.

If singly linked list, push/pop from front, all O(1), otherwise if you do from end, it’s O(N).

With doubly linked list, it’s O(1) from either end.

LinkedList has push / pop methods in java.util. Basically just reimplement this along with the other functions above.

Alex Scott If you're a nerd, I'm a nerd.
comments powered by Disqus